## CBSE Class 9 Mathematics Syllabus 2023-2

### COURSE STRUCTURE

 Units Unit Name Marks I NUMBER SYSTEMS 10 II ALGEBRA 20 III COORDINATE GEOMETRY 04 IV GEOMETRY 27 V MENSURATION 13 VI STATISTICS & PROBABILITY 06 Total 80

#### UNIT I: NUMBER SYSTEMS

1. REAL NUMBERS – (18) Periods

1. Review of representation of natural numbers, integers, and rational numbers on the number line. Rational numbers as recurring/ terminating decimals. Operations on real numbers.
2. Examples of non-recurring/non-terminating decimals. Existence of non-rational numbers (irrational numbers) such as, and their representation on the number line. Explaining that every real number is represented by a unique point on the number line and conversely, viz. every point on the number line represents a unique real number.
3. Definition of nth root of a real
4. Rationalization (with precise meaning) of real numbers of the type and  (and their combinations) where x and y are natural number and a and b are integers.
1. Recall of laws of exponents with integral powers. Rational exponents with positive real bases (to be done by particular cases, allowing learner to arrive at the general laws.)

#### UNIT II: ALGEBRA

1. POLYNOMIALS – (26) Periods

Definition of a polynomial in one variable, with examples and counter examples. Coefficients of a polynomial, terms of a polynomial and zero polynomial. Degree of a polynomial. Constant, linear, quadratic and cubic polynomials. Monomials, binomials, trinomials. Factors and multiples. Zeros of a polynomial. Motivate and State the Remainder Theorem with examples. Statement and proof of the Factor Theorem. Factorization of ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 where a, b and c are real numbers, and of cubic polynomials using the Factor Theorem.

Recall of algebraic expressions and identities. Verification of identities: and their use in factorization of polynomials.

2.   LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES – (16) Periods

Recall of linear equations in one variable. Introduction to the equation in two variables. Focus on linear equations of the type ax + by + c=0.Explain that a linear equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions and justify their being written as ordered pairs of real numbers, plotting them and showing that they lie on a line.

#### UNIT III: COORDINATE GEOMETRY

1. COORDINATE GEOMETRY – (7) Periods

The Cartesian plane, coordinates of a point, names and terms associated with the coordinate plane, notations.

#### UNIT IV: GEOMETRY

1. INTRODUCTION TO EUCLID’S GEOMETRY – (7) Periods

History – Geometry in India and Euclid’s geometry. Euclid’s method of formalizing observed phenomenon into rigorous Mathematics with definitions, common/obvious notions, axioms/postulates and theorems. The five postulates of Euclid. Showing the relationship between axiom and theorem, for example:

(Axiom) 1. Given two distinct points, there exists one and only one line through them. (Theorem) 2. (Prove) Two distinct lines cannot have more than one point in common.

2. LINES AND ANGLES – (15) Periods

1. (Motivate) If a ray stands on a line, then the sum of the two adjacent angles so formed is 180O and the converse.
2. (Prove) If two lines intersect, vertically opposite angles are
3. (Motivate) Lines which are parallel to a given line are

3. TRIANGLES(22) Periods

1. (Motivate) Two triangles are congruent if any two sides and the included angle of one triangle is equal to any two sides and the included angle of the other triangle (SAS Congruence).
2. (Prove) Two triangles are congruent if any two angles and the included side of one triangle is equal to any two angles and the included side of the other triangle (ASA Congruence).
3. (Motivate) Two triangles are congruent if the three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of the other triangle (SSS Congruence).
4. (Motivate) Two right triangles are congruent if the hypotenuse and a side of one triangle are equal (respectively) to the hypotenuse and a side of the other triangle. (RHS Congruence)
5. (Prove) The angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are
6. (Motivate) The sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle are

1. (Prove) The diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent
2. (Motivate) In a parallelogram opposite sides are equal, and
3. (Motivate) In a parallelogram opposite angles are equal, and
4. (Motivate) A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if a pair of its opposite sides is parallel and
5. (Motivate) In a parallelogram, the diagonals bisect each other and
6. (Motivate) In a triangle, the line segment joining the mid points of any two sides is parallel to the third side and in half of it and (motivate) its converse.

5. CIRCLES(17) Periods

1.(Prove) Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the center and (motivate) its converse.

2.(Motivate) The perpendicular from the center of a circle to a chord bisects the chord and conversely, the line drawn through the center of a circle to bisect a chord is perpendicular to the chord.

3. (Motivate) Equal chords of a circle (or of congruent circles) are equidistant from the center (or their respective centers) and conversely.

4.(Prove) The angle subtended by an arc at the center is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle.

5.(Motivate) Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal.

6.(Motivate) If a line segment joining two points subtends equal angle at two other points lying on the same side of the line containing the segment, the four points lie on a circle.

7.(Motivate) The sum of either of the pair of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180° and its converse.

#### UNIT V: MENSURATION

1.  AREAS – (5) Periods

Area of a triangle using Heron’s formula (without proof)

2. SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES – (17) Periods

Surface areas and volumes of spheres (including hemispheres) and right circular cones.

#### UNIT VI: STATISTICS & PROBABILITY

1. STATISTICS – (15) Periods

Bar graphs, histograms (with varying base lengths), and frequency polygons.

### MATHEMATICS QUESTION PAPER DESIGN

Time: 3 Hours
Max. Marks: 80

 S. No. Typology of Questions Total Marks % Weightage (approx.) 1 Remembering: Exhibit memory of previously learned material by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts, and answers. Understanding: Demonstrate understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas 43 54 2 Applying: Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way. 19 24 3 Analysing : Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations Evaluating: Present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas, or quality of work based on a set of criteria. Creating: Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions 18 22 Total 80 100
 INTERNAL ASSESSMENT – 20 MARKS Pen Paper Test and Multiple Assessment (5+5) – 10 Marks Portfolio – 05 Marks Lab Practical (Lab activities to be done from the prescribed books) – 05 Marks