Sustainable Management of Natural Resources Class 10 Notes Science Chapter 16


1. Introduction: Anything in the environment which can be used is called a natural resource.
Controlling system for the use of natural resources in such a way as to avoid their wastage and to use them in the most effective way is called management of natural resources.

2. Forest and wild life
i) Forests are vast areas, located far away from human inhabitation where wild plants of various kinds grow and animals of different varieties live without the intervention of humans.
ii) Forests are “biodiversity hot spots”.
iii) A person with an interest or concern in something is called a stakeholder.

(I) To consider the conservation of forests, we need to look at the stakeholders who are:

  • (a) The people who live in or around forests, are dependent on forest products for various aspects of their life.
  • (b) The Forest Department of the Government owns the land and controls the resources from forests.
  • (c) The industrialists – who use various forest products.
  • (d) The wild life and nature enthusiasts who want to conserve nature in its pristine form.

A major programme called silviculture has been started to replenish the forests by growing more trees and plants.

(ii) Steps for conservation of energy resources

  • (a) Save electricity, water etc. by not wasting it.
  • (b) Use energy efficient electrical appliances to save electricity.
  • (c) Use pressure cooker for cooking food.
  • (d) Use solar cookers.
  • (e) Encourage the use of biogas as domestic fuel.
  • (f) Fuel efficient motor vehicle should be designed to reduce consumption of petrol and diesel.

3. Pollution: Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.

4. Sustainable management: Sustainable management is the application of sustainable practices in the categories of agriculture, environment etc. by managing them in a way that will benefit to current generations and future generations.
The destruction of forests affects not just the availability of forest products but also the quality of soil and the sources of water.
Large scale killing of snakes disrupts the food chains in which snakes occur and creates and imbalance in nature.

5. Sources of water: The various sources of water which are available to us are: rains, rivers, lakes, ponds, wells, oceans and glaciers (snow mountains). Rain is a very important source of water.

6. Water pollution: Water pollution is the pollution of bodies of water, such as lakes, rivers, seas, the oceans as well as groundwater. It occurs when pollutants reach these water bodies, without treatment.
The contamination of river water can be usually found from two factors:

  1. the presence of coliform bacteria in river water, and
  2. measurement of pH of river water.

7. Rain water harvesting: It is an accumulation and storage of rain water for reuse on-site, rather than allowing it to run. It is an age-old practice in India. Water-harvesting techniques used depend on the location where it is to be used.
(i) Various advantages of water stored in the ground are:

  • (a) The water stored in ground does not evaporate.
  • (b) The water stored in ground is use to recharge wells and provides moisture for crops over a wide area.
  • (c) The water stored in ground does not promote breeding of mosquitoes (unlike stagnant water collected in ponds or artificial lakes).
  • (d) The water stored in ground is protected from contamination by human and animal wastes.
  • (e) The water stored in ground is utilised for the benefit of the local population.

(ii) Traditional water harvesting systems: Water harvesting is a technique
by which the water can be collected either surface or sub-surface to store up during wet period and used during dry period by applying a proper technique such as channel reservoir, on-farm reservoir, infilteration well etc. The given table provides water harvesting systems in various state and union territory.

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