NCERT Solutions for class 10th Science Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources


Question 1. What changes can you make in your habits to become more environment friendly?

Sol. The changes in our habits that can be made to become more environment friendly are as follows:

  1. Segregate waste into recyclable and non-recyclable parts.
  2. Switch-off the lights when not in use.
  3. Plastic, paper or glass must be recycled or reused and not dumped with other wastes.
  4. Air conditioner, geyser and other electrical appliances should be use efficiently.
  5. Prefer walking instead of vehicles for travelling short distance.

Question 2. What would be the advantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims?

Sol. There is a need to exploit our resources carefully. The demand for the resources is increasing at an alarming rate and these should be used in such a manner that they last for the generations to come. The advantage of exploiting resources with short-term aims will make the resources available in large quantity and the speed of development will be accelerated. Ultimately, hardly any resources will be left for the future generations. Therefore, using reserves with a short-term aim will prove suicidal and disastrous. We should use resources with a long­ term aim which form the basis for sustainable management.

Question 3. How would these advantages differ from the advantages of using a long term perspective in managing our resources?

Sol. The management of our natural resources requires a long-term perspective. The advantages of long-term perspective in managing our resources are as follows:
(i)Resources will last for future generations and they will not get fully exhausted.
(ii)Resources will be distributed equitably among all.
(iii)Environmental problems and damage to the environment will not be caused, if long- term perspective is kept in mind. Thus, by sticking to long-term perspective, ecological imbalance will not be caused.

Question 4. Why do you think there should be equitable distribution of resources? What forces would be working against an equitable distribution of our resources?

Sol. There should be equitable distribution of resources among all people, so that all are benefitted from the development of these resources. Our natural resources are limited and the human population is increasing at a tremendous rate. The demand for the resources is also increasing at an alarming rate. The benefit of the development of resources should reach the poor, the needy and the local people, for that their equitable distribution would be just and very appropriate.

Many forces can go against the equitable distribution of natural resources. Geographical factors are the most important factors which do not allow equitable distribution of resources. Economy is another factor which prevents equitable distribution of resources. Beside this, human greed, corruption, and the lobby of the rich and powerful are also the forces working against an equitable distribution of resources.

Question 5. Why should we conserve forests and wildlife?

Sol. Wildlife and forests should be conserved for the following reasons:

  1. Conservation of wildlife and forests is vital for the ecological stability of a particular area.
  2. Forests are necessary for the formation of humus and for maintaining soil fertility.
  3. Forests are the habitat for wildlife and they are an important constituent of the various food chains and food webs. Forests are needed for the smooth functioning of biogeochemical cycles.
  4. Forests purify air and protect the earth from greenhouse effect by removing carbon dioxide and converting it into oxygen. Thus, forests protect us from the harmful effects of global warming.
  5. Forests provide employment to a large number of people and also help in generating revenue.

Note: Forests are large regions of land covered with trees, shrubs and herbs. It sustains a variety of life forms. Naturally occurring plants and animals are the flora and fauna of the forests

Question 6. Suggest some approaches towards the conservation of forests.

Sol. Forest conservation is the practice of planning and maintaining forested areas for the benefit and sustainability of future generations. The conservation of forest can be done by the following approaches:

  1. We should not bring about over-exploitation and deforestation of forests, the activities of tourist department should be checked.
  2. People should show their participation in saving the forest by protesting against the cutting of the trees.
  3. Not to allow the destruction of forests for making roads, dams and hotels etc.
  4. There should be proper laws for the exploitation of forest resources.
  5. Afforestation is one of the most important approach for the conservation of forest.

Question 7. Find out about the traditional systems of water harvesting/management in your region.

Sol. There are various traditional systems of water harvesting and management in our region. These are-

  • Bundhis in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh
  • Kulhs in Himachal Pradesh
  • Khadins, tanks and nadir in Rajasthan
  • Ahars and pynes in Bihar
  • Eris (tanks) in Tamil Nadu
  • Surangams in Kerala
  • Ponds in Kandi belt of Jammu and Kashmir

[Refer Chapter at a Glance point 7 (ii)]

Question 8. Compare the above system with the probable systems in hilly/mountainous area or plains or plateau regions.

Sol. Water harvesting system in hilly and mountainous areas is different from plains and from plateau region. In hilly areas like Himachal Pradesh a local system of irrigation was developed called kulhs. The water flowing in the streams was diverted in, manrjnaale channels which took this water to numerous villages down the hillside. Whereas water in plains is collected in check dams or tanks, tals or bundhis.

Question 9. Find out the source of water in your region/locality. Is water from this source available to all people living in that area?

Sol. The main source of water in my region i.e., Delhi isYamuna river. Water in Delhi comes from river Yamuna which is then treated and supplied to the residents through pipes. Some water is also taken from the ground through bore-wells. This water is not available to all those people living in the areas which are not approved by municipal authorities. In these areas, the ground water is the main source which is obtained through hand pumps and tube-wells.


Question 1. What changes would you suggest in your home in order to be environment friendly?

Sol. By applying the formula of three R’s we can be environment friendly i.e.,
Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.
(a) Reduce – We must save water and electricity. Their wastage should be stopped.
(b) Recycle – The wastes which can be recycled should be separated from other wastes.
(c) Reuse – We can reuse same materials instead of throwing them, e.g., paper envelop.

Question 2. Can you suggest same changes in your school which would make it
environment friendly?

Sol. By applying the same formula of 3 R’s in the school, the children are made to understand the significance of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle in their life. Therefore, we can suggest the following changes in school which would make it environment friendly:

  1. To collect the waste paper, reuse and recycle it.
  2. To switch-off the lights and fans of the classroom when not in use.
  3. To use school transport instead of personal vehicle to save petrol.
  4. Plantation of trees around the playground along with the boundary.
  5. Blackboard should be used more often and the use of projectors and computers should be minimised.
  6. All the leaking taps should be immediately repaired.
  7. The fallen leaves should be collected and made into compost. This compost can be use in school garden.

Question 3. We saw in this chapter that there are four main stakeholders when it comes to forests and wildlife. Which among these should have the authority to decide the management of forest produce? Why do you think so?

Sol. The forest dwellers should have the authority to decide the management of forest produces because forest dwellers have traditionally been dependent on forests for their livelihood but at the same time are aware that excessive use of forest produce will be detrimental for their own survival. They have learnt to respect the forest and always resist from overexploitation of resources and have some traditional knowledge which can really help in forest conservation.

Note: Stakeholders can affect or be affected by the organisations actions, objectives and policies. Some examples of key stakeholders are creditors, directors, employees, government (and its agencies), owners, suppliers and the community from which the business draws its resources.

Question 4. How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of (a) forests and wildlife (b) water resources (c) coal and petroleum?

Sol. As an individual we can make difference in the management of natural resources in the following ways:
(a) For forest and wildlife:

  • I will not buy any animal products which are made by killing them like fur, skin, tusk, horn etc.
  • As an individual, will ensure afforestation in my area.
  • By reducing the use of paper. This would help in minimising the need for cutting down trees.

(b) For water resources:

  • By preventing the wastage of water by closing the tap when not in use.
  • Recycling the water from washing machine for toilets use.
  • I will also ensure that all surface water sources and the groundwater are prevented from being contaminated.

(c) For coal and petroleum:

  • Using bicycle for going to school.
  • By organising awareness campaigns to educate people about the benefits ofusing environment-friendly modes of transport.
  • By using electric gadgets that use less power.

Question 5. What can you as an individual due to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?

Sol. As an individual we can reduce our consumption of various natural resources by the following ways:

  1. Using less forest resources.
  2. Saving wild life.
  3. Promoting water harvesting in houses and offices.
  4. Using solar lamps and stoves.
  5. Avoiding cars, motor bikes for going nearby places.

Question 6. List five things you have done over the last one week to –
(a) Conserve our natural resources
(b) Increase the pressure on our natural resources.

Sol. (a) To conserve our natural resources:

  1. Saved electricity by switching-off unnecessary lights and fans.
  2. Repaired leaky taps for saving water.
  3. Took part in tree plantation in school.
  4. Used bicycle instead of scooter for going market.
  5. Took part in community awareness, meetings regarding environmental conservation.

(b) To increase pressure on our natural resources:

  1. Kept the computer switched on even when it was not in use.
  2. Used plastic bags.
  3. Wasted rain water by not harvesting it.
  4. Used D.D.T.
  5. Wasted petrol by using a four wheeler.

Question 7. On the basis of the issues raised in this chapter, what changes would you incorporate in your life-style in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources?

Sol. The changes that we make in our lifestyles so that we can use the natural resources on a sustainable basis are as follows:

  1. Use of biogas as domestic fuel should be encouraged.
  2. Rainwater should be stored in underground tanks or should be allowed to percolate in a soil and used to recharge the groundwater table.
  3. Switch-off the electrical appliances when not in use.
  4. We should use public transport and avoid the use of private vehicles.
  5. We should follow the three R’s (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) and incorporate in our life-style.

Note: Sustainable use of natural resources implies that we use resources in a manner which meet the needs of the present generation as well as preserves the resources for future generations and also ensures that we do not overexploit our natural resources and do not pollute our environment.

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