CBSE Class 12 Political Science Syllabus 2024-25 (PDF Download)

CBSE Class 12 Political Science Syllabus 2024-25

Code No. 028


Chapter No.Chapter NameNo. of PeriodsMarks Allotted
1The End of Bipolarity156
2Contemporary Centres of Power186
3Contemporary South Asia186
4International Organizations106
5Security in the Contemporary World106
6Environment and Natural Resources126
1Challenges of Nation-Building166
2Era of One-Party Dominance84
3Politics of Planned Development122
4India’s External Relations206
5Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System124
6The Crisis of Democratic Order154
7Regional Aspirations156
8Recent Developments in Indian Politics208
  Chapter No. and Name  Specific Learning ObjectivesSuggested Teaching Learning ProcessLearning Outcomes with Specific Competencies
1 The End of Bipolarity Topics to be focused: The Soviet SystemGorbachev and the disintegrationCauses and Consequences of disintegration of Soviet UnionShock Therapy and its ConsequencesNew entities in world politicsRussiaBalkan StatesCentral Asian States f) India’s relations with Russia and other post-communist countriesFamiliarize students with the:Group Discussion: Causes and consequences ofAfter completion of the chapter, Students will be
Historical facts and processes of formation of Soviet Union.   Causes and consequences of the Disintegration of the Soviet Uniondisintegration of USSR   Documentaries-Past & present situations in USSR/Post Soviet Republicsable to: Identify the basic features of the Soviet System.   Discuss the background and outcome of
  Shock Therapy and its consequences.  Analysis of relevant newspaper articlesdisintegration of the Soviet Union.
  Tensions and Conflicts which occurred in the former Soviet Republics. Examine the consequences of unipolar world   Assess the features of Shock Therapy
Relationship between India and the post-communist countries   Probe into the recent happenings in the Post-
  Communist Countries.
  Trace the developments between India& Russia
2 Contemporary Centres of Power Topics to be focused: European UnionAssociation of Southeast Asian NationsRise of China as an economic powerJapan and South Korea as emerging powersFamiliarize students with the:   Alternative centres of power.   European Union and ASEAN as alternative centres of power.   Economic rise of China and its impact on world politics.   Relations of India with China.Discussion: Importance on regional organisations   Comparative study: Economic growth of China, Japan and South Korea.   Use of timeline Inquiry based learning Map activity Interpretation of cartoons/ Pictures/ Newspaper clippingsAfter completion of the chapter, Students will be able to: Compare and contrast the importance of European Union and ASEAN.   Evaluate the extent of rise of Chinese economy and its impact on world politics.   Summarize India’s relations with China.
3 Contemporary South Asia Topics to be focused: Military and Democracy in Pakistan and BangladeshMonarchy and Democracy in NepalEthnic Conflict and Democracy in Sri LankaIndia-Pakistan ConflictsIndia and its NeighboursPeace and CooperationFamiliarize students with the:   South Asian region.   Nature of Political systems in the countries of the region.   Reasons that contributed to Pakistan’s failure in building a stabled democracy.   Factors that led to struggle for democracy in Bangladesh.Developments leading to the transition from Monarchy to aMap activity   Comparative Analysis: Political systems of South Asian countries   Use of Historical data     Interpretation of cartoons/Pictures /Newspaper clippings   Discussion: Current economic crisis in Sri Lanka and PakistanAfter completion of the chapter, Students will be able to:   Identify & locate the seven countries of the South Asian region.   Appreciate the mixed record of democracy in the South Asian region.   Examine the role of Political leaders   Reflect upon the causes of various conflicts and

 Democracy in Nepal.Quizmovements in this region.   Justify the creation of SAARC   Understand the involvement of US and China in South Asia.
Continuation of democracy since independence despite serious ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka
Relations between India and its neighbours
Importance of regional cooperation in South Asia
Role of big powers like USA and China in the South Asian region.
4 International OrganizationsFamiliarize students with the: Important events in World HistoryNeed for formation of International OrganizationsFunctioning of International OrganizationsOrgans and agencies of the United NationsNeed for reforms in the changing worldUnited Nations in a unipolar worldDiscussion and debate: Necessary reforms of the UNAfter completion of the chapter, Students will be able to:
Topics to be focused: Meaning and importance of International OrganisationsEvolution of the UNStructure and function of International OrganisationsPrincipal Organs of UNReform of the UN after Cold WarReform of Structures, Processes and Jurisdiction of the UNIndia and the UN ReformsInterpretation of cartoons /Newspaper clippings   Quiz   Model United NationsDefine International OrganizationAppreciate the role of United Nations and its agenciesReflect on the events taking place in the post-cold war eraUnderstand the need for reforms in the United Nations

Key Agencies: IMF, World Bank, WTO, ILO, IAEA.NGO: Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch.Implications and Future of International Organizations   
5 Security in the Contemporary World   Topics to be focused: Meaning and Type of Security.Traditional concept of securityNon-tradition notions of Security.New Sources of ThreatsCooperative SecurityIndia’s Security strategyFamiliarize students with the: Meaning, nature and types of securityExternal and Internal notions of securityEmerging challenges of new Threats-Human rights, terrorism, migration, health, epidemicsNeed for Cooperative securityComponents of India’s security strategyDiscussions and debates: New sources of threat   Comparative analysis: Security concerns of different countries   Interpretation of cartoons/Pictures   Collaborative concept mapping: India’s initiatives and policies towards security.After completion of the chapter, Students will be able to: Recognize the causes of security threatsEnhance analytical skills to provide solutions to security concerns.Develop critical thinking about the role of various stakeholders in ensuring security today.
6 Environment and Natural Resources Topics to be focused: Environmental ConcernsGlobal CommonsCommon but differentiated ResponsibilitiesIndia’s Stand on Environment IssuesEnvironmental MovementsFamiliarize students with the: Environmental issuesGlobal commonsResponsibilities of developed and developing countries towards the conservation of the environment Efforts taken by India at resource conservation and sustainable developmentPresentation: Environmental issues Recapitulation Debate and discussion: Indigenous communities of the world and their concerns Newspaper activity to inculcate concern, awareness andAfter completion of the chapter, Students will be able to: Enlist and explain the facts related to global environmental issuesRecognize and understand the need to conserve critical resourcesDemonstrate knowledge

Resource GeopoliticsRights of Indigenous peoplesNeed to conserve critical resources like oil and waterEnvironmental movementsConcerns of indigenous communities, the role of governments and international organizations in protecting their rights.environmental moralityand appreciation towards India’s responsibility in protecting environment Realize the need to conserve resources and exhibit responsibility towards prudential use to facilitate sustainable developmentKnow about the nature of concerns of indigenous communities and understand how the governments of different countries respond to their plea
7 Globalisation Topics to be focused: Concept of globalisationCauses and Consequences of globalisationIndia and globalizationResistance to globalizationIndia and resistance to globalisationFamiliarize students with the:   Concept of Globalisation.   Causes of Globalisation.   Political, economic, and cultural consequences of Globalisation.   Impact of Globalisation on India.   Resistance to globalisation and its future course.Group discussion: Positive and negative impact of globalization.   Interpretation of Cartoons Question strategyAfter completion of the chapter, Students will be able to:   Appreciate the significance of Globalization   Elucidate the political, economic, and cultural dimensions of Globalisation.   Critically evaluate the impact of globalisation on India.

   Draw attention to resistance movements to Globalisation and envisage its future trends.
1 Challenges of Nation Building   Topics to be focused: a) Challenges for the new Nation. Three Challenges. b) Partition: Displacement and Rehabilitation. Consequences of Partition. c) Integration of Princely States. The problemGovernment’s approachHyderabadManipur d) Reorganisation of States.Familiarize students with the: Nature and challenges of Nation building   Causes and consequences of Partition of India.   Process of integration of princely states   Important role of Sardar Vallabhai Patel in the integration of princely states   Reorganisation of statesDocumentaries   Discussion: Causes and consequences of Partition   Live Experiences-Meeting People who lived through this period.   Cartoon Interpretation Map ActivityAfter completion of the chapter, Students will be able to: Analyse the challenges which Independent India faced.Describe the factors that led to the partition of India.   Explain the circumstances under which different princely states signed the Instrument of Accession.   Assess how language became the basis of reorganisation of the states.   Evaluate the role played by leaders in Nation Building.
2 Era of One-Party Dominance Topics to be focussed: a) Challenge of building democracy.Familiarize students with the:   Challenge of establishing democracy in India.   Process of ensuring free and fair Elections.Group Discussion: Recent changes in the electoral process   Comparative analysis: Ideology of different political partiesAfter completion of the chapter, Students will be able to:   Appreciate the sustenance of democratic politics in the country.

b) Congress dominance in the first three general elect ions. Nature of Congress dominanceCongress as social and ideological coalition.Tolerance and management of Factions c) Emergence of opposition parties.  Nature and dominance of Congress party during the Post-Independence Period.   Emergence and role of opposition parties  Maps/Cartoons Question strategy QuizEvaluate the electoral politics post-Independence   Assess the dominance ofthe Indian National Congress from 1952 to 1967.   Evaluate the role of Opposition parties
3 Politics of Planned Development Topics to be focussed: a) Political contestation. Ideas of Development.PlanningPlanning Commission b)    The Early Initiatives The First Five Year Plan.Rapid Industrialisation.Familiarize students with the: Nature of conflict in achieving the twin objectives of economic growth and socio- economic justice.   Two models of development   Design or plan of development.   Emergence aims and objectives of the first two five-year plans.   Replacement of Planning Commission by National Institution for Transforming India (NITI Aayog)  Debate and Discussion: First three 5-year plans.   Comparative analysis: The Left and Right ideology.After completion of the chapter, Students will be able to:   Identify the varied option considered by the government to balance growth and socio-economic justice.   Know the difference between Left and Right Ideology   Understand the need for the formation of the Planning Commission.   Appreciate the need for strategic long-term development programme and policies

4 India’s External Relations Topics to be focussed: International ContextThe Policy of Non- Alignment.Nehru’s roleDistance from two camps.Afro Asian Unity c)    Peace and conflict with China The Chinese Invasion1962War and Peace with PakistanBangladesh War 1971 d) India’s Nuclear Policy.Familiarize students with the:   Objectives and Principles of India’s foreign policy   India’s role as a founder of NAM and in forging Afro- Asian unity   Sino-Indian relationship – Pre and post 1962 invasion and its profound impact on Indian politics   India-Pakistan relationship since independence   Components of India’s nuclear policy   Shifting alliances in World PoliticsPresentation: NAM founders, objectives, principles and its relevance in contemporary world politics   Group discussion: India’s relations with China and Pakistan (past, present and future)   Debate: India’s stand on shifting alliances   Research and Report WritingAfter completion of the chapter, Students will be able to: Recognise the significance of NAM   Interpret, compare and contrast multi-lateral aspects of Indo-China relationship   Demonstrate knowledge on Indo-Pak wars   Appreciate the steps taken by Indian government to develop military capacity   Reflect and introspect on the choices that the country must consider for the cause of development and peace building
5 Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System Topics to be focused: a) Challenge of Political Succession From Nehru to ShastriFamiliarize students with the:   Challenge of Political Succession after Nehru   Split in Congress and opposition unityUse of timeline   Comparative analysis: Political Succession   Group discussion: Changing electoral performance of theAfter completion of the chapter, Students will be able to:   Understand the challenges of political succession after Nehru.   Evaluate the opposition
From Shastri to Indira Gandhi b)    Fourth General Election 1967 Context of the Election.Non CongressismElectoral VerdictCoalitionsDefections c) Split in the Congress Indira vs the SyndicatePresidential Election 1969 d) The 1971 Election and Restoration of Congress The outcome and afterRestoration?New Congress led by Indira Gandhi   Restoration of the Congress system.congress   Interpretation of cartoons Map Activityunity and the Congress split as a challenge to Congress dominance.   Compare and contrast the new Congress and the old Congress.   Summarize the initiatives taken by Indira Gandhi to overcome the challenges faced by her   Analyze the process of restoration of the Congress system
6 The Crisis of Democratic Order Topics to be focused: a) Background                                     to Emergency. Economic Context.Gujarat and Bihar MovementsConflict with Judiciary b) Declaration of EmergencyFamiliarize students with the:   Economic conditions before Emergency.   Gujarat and Bihar movements.   Conflict between Executive and Judiciary.   Consequences of  Group discussion: Based on Newspaper articles and other media information with respect to emergency     Quiz Cartoon Interpretation Map ActivityAfter completion of the chapter, Students will be able to:   Understand the causes and consequences of Emergency   Examine the lessons of Emergency   Evaluate the rule of Janata

Crisis and responseConsequencesLessons of the Emergency.Politics after Emergency.Lok Sabha Elections 1977Janata GovernmentLegacyEmergency.   Lessons of Emergency.   Lok Sabha Elections-1977. Government
7 Regional Aspirations Topics to be focused: a) Region and the Nation Indian ApproachAreas of TensionJammu and KashmirRoots of the ProblemExternal and Internal disputesPolitics since 1948Insurgency and After2022 and Beyond b) Punjab Political ContextCycle of ViolenceRoad to Peace c) The Northeast Demand for autonomySecessionist MovementsMovements against outsidersAssam and NationalFamiliarize students with the:   Rise of regional aspirations and government’s response   Underlying reasons for demands for regional autonomy   Success of Indian government in recognizing regionalism as a part and parcel of democratic politics.  Group discussion: Demands of Autonomy in different parts of the country. Comparative analysis: Government’s response to regional aspirations Quiz.After completion of the chapter, Students will be able to: Discuss the implications of regional demands.   Analyse the importance of integrity in India.   Appreciate the initiatives taken by the government in dealing with regional aspirations

8 Recent Developments in Indian Politics Topics to be focused   Context of 1990s   Era of CoalitionAlliance Politics c) Political rise if the Backward Classes Mandal ImplementedPolitical Fallouts d) Communalism, Secularism and Democracy. Ayodhya DisputeDemolition and afterEmergence of New ConsensusLok Sabha Elections 2004Growing ConsensusFamiliarize students with the: Nature, trends and developments in Indian politics and its impact   Era of Coalitions-National Front, United Front, United Progressive Alliance, National Democratic Alliance   Implications of Coalition politics   Political Rise of Other Backward Classes   Decline of Congress system and rise of NDA led by Bhartiya Janta Party   Emergence of growing consensusComparative analysis: Different developments taking place in present scenario with that of twentieth century.   Timeline   Interpretation of Cartoons/Caricatures   Quiz   Reflective EnquiryAfter completion of the chapter, Students will be able to:   Understand momentous changes taking place in the nation since 1989   Trace the rise and growth of BJP.   Identify the areas of growing consensus
Prescribed Books:
  1. Contemporary World Politics, Class XII, Published by NCERT
  2. Politics in India since Independence, Class XII, Published by NCERT
  3. Added Reference Material available with the document in the Annexure


The above textbooks are also available in Hindi and Urdu versions

For detailed syllabus, please check the official syllabus PDF – Here

Also don’t forget to check the complete CBSE Class 12 Syllabus.