CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2024-25 (PDF Download)

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2024-25


Time: 3 hrs.

Max Marks: 70


No. of Periods











Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields


Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance


Current Electricity




Chapter–3: Current Electricity


Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism







Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism


Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter


Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents




Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction


Chapter–7: Alternating Current


Electromagnetic Waves







Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves






Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments


Chapter–10: Wave Optics


Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter







Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter


Atoms and Nuclei




Chapter–12: Atoms


Chapter–13: Nuclei


Electronic Devices







Chapter–14: Semiconductor

Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits




Unit I: Electrostatics                                                                                   26 Periods

Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric charges, Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two- point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

 Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two-point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor (no derivation, formulae only).

Unit II: Current Electricity 18 Periods

 Chapter–3: Current Electricity

 Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, temperature dependence of resistance, Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s rules, Wheatstone bridge.

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism 25 Periods

 Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.

Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight solenoid (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields.

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, moving coil galvanometer- its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter

Bar magnet, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid (qualitative treatment only), magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis (qualitative treatment only), torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field (qualitative treatment only), magnetic field lines.

Magnetic properties of materials- Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances with examples, Magnetization of materials, effect of temperature on magnetic properties.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents 24 Periods Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz’s Law, Self and mutual induction.

Chapter–7: Alternating Current

 Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit (phasors only), resonance, power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current.

AC generator, Transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic waves 04 Periods Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves

Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative idea only).

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics 30 Periods

Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism.

Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Chapter–10: Wave Optics

Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width (No derivation final expression only), coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maxima (qualitative treatment only).

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter                08 Periods

Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Experimental study of photoelectric effect

Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation.

Unit VIII: Atoms and Nuclei                      15 Periods

Chapter–12: Atoms

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model of hydrogen atom, Expression for radius of nth possible orbit, velocity and energy of electron in nth orbit, hydrogen line spectra (qualitative treatment only).

Chapter–13: Nuclei

Composition and size of nucleus, nuclear force

Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

Unit IX: Electronic Devices                                              10  Periods

Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors- p and n type, p-n junction

Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, application of junction diode -diode as a rectifier.


Total Periods 60

  • The record to be submitted by the students at the time of their annual examination has to include:
    • Record of at least 8 Experiments [with 4 from each section], to be performed by the students.
    • Record of at least 6 Activities [with 3 each from section A and section B], to be performed by the students.
    • The Report of the project carried out by the students.

Evaluation Scheme

Max. Marks: 30

Time 3 hours

Two experiments one from each section

7+7 Marks

Practical record [experiments and activities]

5 Marks

One activity from any section

3 Marks

Investigatory Project

3 Marks

Viva on experiments, activities and project

5 Marks


30 marks


  1. To determine resistivity of two / three wires by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current.
  2. To find resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using meter bridge.
  3. To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a meter bridge.


To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a meter bridge

  1. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.
  2. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.


To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.

  1. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.


  1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core
  2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.
  3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.
  4. To assemble the components of a given electrical.
  5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady 
  6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.



  1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the focal length.
  2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex 
  3. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.
  1. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex 
  2. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
  1. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling 
  1. To find the refractive index of a liquid using convex lens and plane 
  2. To find the refractive index of a liquid using a concave mirror and a plane 
  1. To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction diode in forward and reverse bias.


  1. To identify a diode, an LED, a resistor and a capacitor from a mixed collection of such items.
  2. Use of multimeter tosee the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED and check whether a given electronic component (e.g., diode) is in working
  3. Tostudy effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an 
  4. To observe refractionand lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.
  5. Toobserve diffraction of light due to a thin 
  6. To study the nature and size of the image formed by a (i) convex lens, or (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).
  7. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.

Suggested Investigatory Projects

  1. Tostudy various factors on which the internal resistance/EMF of a cell 
  1. Tostudy the variations in current flowing in a circuit containing an LDR because of a variation in
    • the power of the incandescent lamp, used to ‘illuminate’ the LDR (keeping all the lamps at a fixed distance).
  • the distance of a incandescent lamp (of fixed power) used to ‘illuminate’ the LDR.
  1. To find the refractive indices of (a) water (b) oil (transparent) using a plane mirror, an equiconvex lens (made from a glass of known refractive index) and an adjustable object needle.
  1. To investigate the relation between the ratio of (i) output and input voltage and (ii) number of turns in the secondary coil and primary coil of a self-designed
  1. To investigate the dependence of the angle of deviation on the angle of incidence using a hollow prism filled one by one, with different transparent fluids.
  1. To estimate the charge induced on each one of the two identical Styrofoam (or pith) balls suspended in a vertical plane by making use of Coulomb’s law.
  1. To study the factor on which the self-inductance of a coil depends by observing the effect of this coil, when put in series with a resistor/(bulb) in a circuit fed up by an A.C. source of adjustable frequency.
  1. To study the earth’s magnetic field using a compass needle -bar magnet by plotting magnetic field lines and tangent galvanometer.

Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students of Classes XI and XII Evaluation Scheme

Time 2 hours Max. Marks: 30

Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus

5 marks

Written test (based on given/prescribed practicals)

10 marks

Practical Record

5 marks


10 marks


30 marks


General Guidelines

The practical examination will be of two-hour duration. A separate list of ten experiments is included here.

The written examination in practicals for these students will be conducted at the time of practical examination of all other students.

The written test will be of 30 minutes duration.

The question paper given to the students should be legibly typed. It should contain a total of 15 practical skill based very short answer type questions. A student would be required to answer any 10 questions.

A writer may be allowed to such students as per CBSE examination rules.

All questions included in the question papers should be related to the listed practicals.

Every question should require about two minutes to be answered.

These students are also required to maintain a practical file. A student is expected to record at least five of the listed experiments as per the specific instructions for each subject. These practicals should be duly checked and signed by the internal examiner.

The format of writing any experiment in the practical file should include aim, apparatus required, simple theory, procedure, related practical skills, precautions etc.

Questions may be generated jointly by the external/internal examiners and used for assessment.

The viva questions may include questions based on basic theory/principle/concept, apparatus/ materials/chemicals required, procedure, precautions, sources of error etc.

Class XII

  1. Itemsfor Identification/ familiarity with the apparatus for assessment in practicals (All experiments)

Meter scale, general shape of the voltmeter/ammeter, battery/power supply, connecting wires, standard resistances, connecting wires, voltmeter/ammeter, meter bridge, screw gauge, jockey Galvanometer, Resistance Box, standard Resistance, connecting wires, Potentiometer, jockey, Galvanometer, Lechlanche cell, Daniell cell [simple distinction between the two vis-à-vis their outer (glass and copper) containers], rheostat connecting wires, Galvanometer, resistance box, Plug-in and tapping keys, connecting wires battery/power supply, Diode, Resistor (Wire-wound or carbon ones with two wires connected to two ends), capacitors (one or two types), Inductors, Simple electric/electronic bell, battery/power supply, Plug- in and tapping keys, Convex lens, concave lens, convex mirror, concave mirror, Core/hollow wooden cylinder, insulated wire, ferromagnetic rod, Transformer core, insulated wire.

  1. List of Practicals
  1. To determine the resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph between voltage and current.
  2. Toverify the laws of combination (series/parallel combination) of resistances by Ohm’s law.
  3. Tofind the resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using a meter 
  4. Todetermine the resistance of a galvanometer by half deflection 
  5. Toidentify a resistor, capacitor, inductor and diode from a mixed collection of such items.
  6. Toobserve the difference between
    • aconvex lens and a concave lens
    • a convex mirror and a concave mirror and to estimate the likely differencebetween the power of two given convex /concave 
  7. Todesign an inductor coil and to know the effect of
    • changein the number of turns
  • Introductionof ferromagnetic material as its core material on the inductance of the coil.
  1. Todesign a (i) step up (ii) step down transformer on a given core and know the relation between its input and output voltages.

Note: The above practicals may be carried out in an experiential manner rather than recording observations.

Prescribed Books:

  1. 1. Physics, Class XI, Part -I and II, Published by NCERT.
  2. Physics, Class XII, Part -I and II, Published by NCERT.
  3. Laboratory Manual of Physics for class XII Published by NCERT.
  4. The list of other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also).


The content indicated in NCERT textbooks as excluded for the year 2023-24 is not to be tested by schools and will not be assessed in the Board examinations 2023-24.


Theory (Class: XI/XII)

Maximum Marks: 70 Duration: 3 hrs.

S No.

Typology of Questions






Remembering: Exhibit memory of previously learned material by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts, and answers.

Understanding: Demonstrate understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas


38 %


Applying: Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a

different way.




Analysing : Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations


Present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas, or quality of work based on a set of criteria.


Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing

alternative solutions.




Total Marks







Gross Total




The above template is only a sample. Suitable internal variations may be made for generating similar templates keeping the overall weightage to different form of questions and typology of questions same.

For more details kindly refer to Sample Question Paper of class XII for the year 2023- 24 to be published by CBSE at its website.

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