CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2024-25 (PDF Download)

CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2022-23


Theory: 80 Marks                                                                                                     

3 Hours
Project: 20 Marks





Part A

Introductory Macroeconomics


National Income and Related Aggregates




Money and Banking




Determination of Income and Employment




Government Budget and the Economy




Balance of Payments






Part B

Indian Economic Development


Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991




Current Challenges facing Indian Economy




Development Experience of India – A Comparison with Neighbours




Theory Paper (40+40 = 80 Marks)





Part C

Project Work




Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics

Unit 1: National Income and Related Aggregates                                                                                                                                 

30 Periods

What is Macroeconomics?

Basic concepts in macroeconomics: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.

Circular flow of income (two sector model); Methods of calculating National Income – Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.

Aggregates related to National Income:

Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Net Domestic Product (NDP) – at market price, at factor cost; Real and Nominal GDP.

GDP and Welfare

Unit 2: Money and Banking

15 Periods

Money – meaning and functions, supply of money – Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.

Money creation by the commercial banking system.

Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker’s Bank, Control of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.

Unit 3: Determination of Income and Employment  

30 Periods

Aggregate demand and its components.

Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal). Short-run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism. Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.

Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them – changes in government spending, taxes and money supply.

Unit 4: Government Budget and the Economy

17 Periods

Government budget – meaning, objectives and components. Classification of receipts – revenue receipts and capital receipts;

Classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure. Balanced, Surplus and Deficit Budget – measures of government deficit.

Unit 5: Balance of Payments

18 Periods

Balance of payments account – meaning and components; Balance of payments – Surplus and Deficit

Foreign exchange rate – meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating. Determination of exchange rate in a free market, Merits and demerits of flexible and fixed exchange rate.

Managed Floating exchange rate system

Part B: Indian Economic Development

Unit 6: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991:

28 Periods

A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence. Indian economic system and common goals of Five Year Plans.

Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy), industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance) and foreign trade.

Economic Reforms since 1991:

Features and appraisals of liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation (LPG policy); Concepts of demonetization and GST

Unit 7: Current challenges facing Indian Economy

60 Periods

Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India

Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming – organic farming

Employment: Growth and changes in work force participation rate in formal and informal sectors; problems and policies

Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming

Unit 8: Development Experience of India:

12 Periods

A comparison with neighbours India and Pakistan

India and China

Issues: economic growth, population, sectoral development and other Human Development Indicators

Part C: Project in Economics

20 Periods

Prescribed Books:

  1. Statistics for Economics, NCERT
  2. Indian Economic Development, NCERT
  3. Introductory Microeconomics, NCERT
  4. Macroeconomics, NCERT
  5. Supplementary Reading Material in Economics, CBSE

Note: The above publications are also available in Hindi Medium.

>> To download Class 12 Economics Syllabus PDF – Click here and you can check complete Class 12 Syllabus here.

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