CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2022-23 (PDF Download)

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2022-23

THEORY

Time: 03 Hours
Max. Marks: 70

Unit

Title

Marks

VI

Reproduction

16

VII

Genetics and Evolution

20

VIII

Biology and Human Welfare

12

IX

Biotechnology and its Applications

12

X

Ecology and Environment

10

 

Total

70

Unit-VI Reproduction

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; out breeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction

Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis

-spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy;

elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene

expression and regulation – lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution

Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation andmicrobes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Applications

Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit-X Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

Population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Aboitic Factors, Responses to Abioitic Factors, Adaptations)

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Topics excluded: Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles)

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

PRACTICALS

Time allowed: 3 Hours
Max. Marks: 30

Evaluation Scheme

Marks

One Major Experiment

5

 

5

One Minor Experiment 2 & 3

4

Slide Preparation

1& 4

 

5

Spotting

7

Practical Record + Viva Voce

(Credit to the students’ work over theacademic session may be

given)

4

Investigatory Project and its Project Record + Viva Voce

5

Total

30

 

List of Experiments

  1. Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen
  2. Study the plant population density by quadrat
  3. Study the plant population frequency by quadrat
  4. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study
  5. Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya,

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