Question 1. In what ways do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics?
Answer : Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in the following ways
(a) They start to campaign on any particular issue so that public support and sympathy can be gained. Sometimes they also try to use mass media so that more attention could be given to them by the public. An example is the release of advertisements in newspapers.
(b) They generally call for strike, and dharnas to raise their demands or voice. These methods are used by trade unions, federations, employee association to influence the government and get implemented their demands.
(c) They influence decision making lobbying the legislators.
(d) Issues raised by them influence the policies of political parties.
Question 2. Describe the forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties.
Answer : Forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties
(a) Direct Relationship Sometimes pressure groups are formed or led by the leaders of political parties. These pressure groups act as an extended arm of the political parties. e g . ., most trade unions and student’s organisations are either established by or affiliated to one or the other major political party.
Political parties such as DMK, AIADMK in Tamil Nadu trace their origin from long drawn Social Reform Movements during the 1930s and 1940s. Likewise, Asom Movement led by the students culminated in the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad.
(b) Indirect Relationship In most of the cases, the relationship between political parties and pressure groups or movement groups are indirect. Most of the new leader of the political parties come from these pressure or movement groups.
Question 3. Explain how the activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government.
Answer : Pressure groups provide an opportunity for marginalised people to voice their opinions. Sometimes the governments’s view might be biased by a small group of rich and powerful people. Here the pressure groups step in and force the government to make policies which will benifit other sections of the society also.
Question 4. What is a pressure group? Give few examples.
Answer : Pressure Group An organisation which attempts to influence government policies through demonstrations, protests, etc. It is formed when people with similar opinions come together for achieving the same objectives.
(b) Bhartiya Kisan Union
(c) Narmada Bachao Andolan
Question 5. What is the difference between a pressure group and a political party?
|S.N.||Pressure Group||Political Party|
|1||They have a specific interest and work for the collective interest of their members.||They have a broad based programme that covers many aspects of national interest.|
|2.||Their membership is limited.||The membership of political parties is very broad based.|
|3.||They do not aim to directly control or share political powers.||Political parties directly aim, to control or share political power.|
|4.||They resort of agitations demonstrations etc, to get their demands implemented.||To achieve their aim political parties use constitutional means.|
|5.||They are an informal institution.||Political parties are a formal institution.|
Question 6. Organisation that undertakes activities to promote interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers and lawyers are called ……… groups.
Answer : Sectional Interest.
Question 7. Which among the following is the special feature that distinguishes a pressure group from a political party?
( a) Parties take political stances, while pressure groups do not bother about political issues
(b) Pressure groups are confined to a few people, while political parties involve larger number of people
(c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do
(d) Pressure groups do not seek to mobilise people, while parties do
Answer : (c)
Question 8. Match List I (organisations and struggles) with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists
|List I||List II|
|1. Organisations that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group||A. Movement|
|2. Organisations that seek to promote common interest||B. Political parties|
|3. Struggles launched for the resolution of a social problem with or without an organisational structure||C. Sectional interest groups|
|4. Organisations that mobilise people with a view to win political power||D. Public interest groups|
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
(a) C D B A (b) C D A B
(c) D C B A (d) B C D A
Answer : (b)
Question 9. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists
|List I||List II|
|1. Pressure group||A. Narmada Bachao Andolan|
|2. Long term issue movement||B . Asom Gana Parishad|
|3. Single issue movement||C. Women’s Movement|
|4. Political parties||D . Fertilizer Dealers’ Association|
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
(a) D C A B (b) B A D C
(c) C D B A (d) B D C A
Answer : (a)
Question 10. Consider the following statements about pressure groups and parties.
A. Pressure groups are organised expression of the interests and views of specific social sections.
B. Pressure groups take positions on political issues.
C. All pressure groups are political parties. Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) A and C (b) A and B
(c) B and C (d) All of these
Answer : (b)
Question 11. Mewat is one of the most backward areas in Haryana. It used to be a part of district Gurgaon and Faridabad. The people of Mewat felt that the area will get better attention if it were to become a separate district. But political parties were indifferent to this sentiment. The demand for a separate district was raised by Mewat Educational and Social Organisation and Mewat Saksharta Samiti in 1996. Later, Mewat Vikas Sabha was founded in 2000 and carried out a series of public awareness campaigns. This forced both the major parties, Congress and the Indian National Lok Dal, to announce their support for the new district before the assembly elections held in February 2005. The new district came into existence in July 2005.
In this example, what is the relationship that you observe among movement, political parties and the government? Can you think of an example that shows a relationship different from this one?
Answer : From the example of Mewat, we can infer that movements take up issues which have been ignored by political parties. Political parties may then be influenced by these demands when they frame their own manifestoes. Finally, the party which comes to power ends up implementing steps which fulfils these demands.
The six-year long Assam Movement (1979-1985), led by the All Assam Students Union (AASU), was aimed against the infiltration of foreigner from Bangladesh into Assam. At the end of his movement, the State Assembly was dissolved, the government was dismissed, and fresh elections were held. The Asom Gana Parishad, formed out of the AASU, contested and won the elections, forming the Government of Assam. In this example, we see a political party being formed out of a pressure group, which then goes on to form the government.