On Page 55
Question 1. Mahatma Gandhi on Satyagraha ‘It is said of ‘passive resistance’ that it is the weapon of the weak, but the power which is the subject of this article can be used only by the strong. This power is not passive resistance; indeed it calls for intense activity. The movement in South Africa was not passive but active …
‘Satyagraha is not physical force. A satyagrahi does not inflict pain on the adversary; he does not seek his destruction … In the use of satyagraha , there is no ill-will whatever.
‘Satyagraha is pure soul-force. Truth is the very substance of the soul. That is why this force is called satyagraha. The soul is informed with knowledge. In it burns the flame of love. … Nonviolence is the supreme dharma …
‘It is certain that India cannot rival Britain or Europe in force of arms. The British worship the war-god and they can all of them become, as they are becoming, bearers of arms. The hundreds of millions in India can never carry arms. They have made the religion of non-violence their own …’
Read the text carefully. What did Mahatma Gandhi mean when he said Satyagraha is active resistance?
Answer : What Gandhiji meant about Satyagraha being active resistance was that it requires a lot of soul-force activity. It involves very great sacrifices to be made, which can be done only by strong-willed persons. It requires resistance to oppression without using any force. It emphasises the power of truth and the need to search for it. If the cause is true, physical force is not necessary to fight the oppressor. The Satyagrahi could win the battle against the oppressor by appealing to his conscience , by persuading him to see the truth.
On Page 59
Question 1. If you were a peasant in Uttar Pradesh in 1920, how would you have responded to Gandhiji’s call for Swaraj? Give reasons for your response.
Answer : I would have responded positively to Gandhiji’s call by refusing to pay the Zamindar’s illegal demands, ask for reduction of t he revenue demands to a reasonable amount and also ask for security of tenure. In short, I would boycott the system of Zamindari, as it exists today, in a non-violent manner. The reasons for my above action are that , as a peasant, I will limit my requirement to my area of work. Swaraj would mean freedom from the atrocities perpetrated by the Zamindars.
On Page 60
Question 1. Find out about other participants in the National Movement who were captured and put to death by the British. Can you think of a similar example from the national movement in Indo-China (Chapter 2)?
Answer : There were many participants in the National Movement who were captured and put to death or otherwise killed by the British. These included Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru, Chandrashekhar Azad, Lala Lajpat Rai, Khudiram Bose and Madan Lal Dhingra,
A similar example from the nationalist movement of Vietnam was Hyunh Phu So, the founder of the Hoa Hao movement against the French. They declared him mad and put him in a mental asylum. Later on, they exiled him to Laos.
On Page 67
Question 1. Why did various classes and groups of Indians participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Answer : Various classes and different social groups of Indians participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement led by Gandhiji in 1930. All of them joined this movement on account of their own needs , aspirations and limited understanding.
In the rural areas, rich farmers and peasant communities such as Patidars (Gujarat) and Jats in Uttar Pradesh were very hard hit by the trade depression and decreasing costs of their commercial crops. They found themselves unable to pay the government’s revenue due to the disappearance of their cash income. For them the fight was a struggle against high revenue. So, the rich peasants participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement and supported the boycott programmes.
The poorer peasants were not in favour of lowering of the revenue demand. Many of them were small tenants who used to cultivate rented land taken from landlords. As the depression continued, cash income dwindled and so the tenants were unable to pay their land-rent. They demanded that their dues of rent should be remitted.
The business classes participated in the movement to oppose the colonial polices that restricted business activities. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods, and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
A few of them attacked colonial control over the Indian Economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement. Besides it they supported the movement financially and boycotted the trading of foreign goods. The industrial working classes stayed away from this movement leaving the Nagpur region as industrialists came closer to the congress .
Women took part in this movement. They began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women
On Page 69
Read the Source D carefully. Do you agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism? Can you define communalism in a different way?
Answer : No, I do not agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism. He believed that it is a quest for a community to develop on its own lines. He believed that religion is the basis on which thinking and behaviour are based. He felt that religion gives persons a common culture and literature . He believed in the concept that Hindus and Muslims should exist as separate entities in India. This line of thinking encouraged separatism and ultimately led to the partition of the country.
We understand communalism now-a-days as having a negative connotation, i.e. , it is understood as a conflict between people of different religions, which also can lead to violence between them. It has now become politics under the guise of religious conflict for extracting favours or favourable treatment by the government.
On Page 72
Question 1. Look at Figs. 12 and 14. Do you think these images will appeal to all castes and communities? Explain your views briefly.
Answer : Since in both pictures Bharat Mata is depicted as a Hindu Goddess, it will not have an appeal for all castes and communities. Non-Hindus will definitely not be in any way attracted to these images. Since India is a secular country with diversity in religions , a secular symbol would be better.
Write in brief
Question 1. Explain
(a) Why the growth of nationalism in colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement?
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India?
(c) Why Indian were outranged by the Rowlatt Act?
(d) Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw Non-Cooperation Movement?
(a) National arrogance of the colonial power, their attempt to build the Indian Culture, their economic policy of draining away Indian wealth, wide spread hunger and starvation of masses, burden of heavy taxes over Indian, etc are the number of factors, responsible for the rise of anti-colonial movement. Gandhiji succeeded in forming all these element together under one banner, which led to anti-colonial mass movement.
(b) The war created a new economic and political situation which led to increase in defence expenditure. This expenditure increase was financed by war loans and by increasing taxes. ¢ Price hike during the war years (1914-1918) led to extreme hardship for the commoners. ¢ Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers and the forced recruitment caused widespread anger. ¢ Incidents such as Rowlatt Act, Jalianwala Bagh Messacre, Martial Law in Punjab, disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, further aggravated the situation, resulting in the emergence of the National Movement.
(c) Rowlatt Act was introduced in 1919. Under this Act, the police could arrest anybody without trail. Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, condemned it as a black legislation and strongly opposed this act. The provisions of this act outraged Indians. Meetings were held everywhere and processions taken out. It was the first time when the Indians unitedly opposed the Britishers .
(d) Gandhiji decided to withdraw Non-Cooperation Movement because the movement took a violent turn at Chauri-Chaura, where the people set on fire a Police station in which 22 policemen were burnt a live.
Question 2. What is meant by Satyagraha?
Answer : Satyagraha is a method of agitation and protest based on truth and non-violence. It was first introduced by Mahatma Gandhi in the National Movement. The method was passive resistance, consisting of defiance of laws, non payment of taxes, boycott of government institutions, etc.
Question 3. Write a newspaper report on
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
(b) The Simon Commission
(a) Jallianwala Bagh is situated in Amritsar (Punjab). Here , as a mark of protest against the Rowlatt Act, a peacefully assemblly was going on. People from many surrounding villages were participating. This garden is enclosed on three sides and has only one entrance. In order to terrorise the people, General Dyer entered the park with troops. Without giving any warning to the people, he ordered his sepoys to fire at them. In this firing many people were killed and many wounded.
(b) Simon Commission arrived in India in 1929. It was greeted with black flags and slogans like ‘Simon Go Back’. Both Congress and Muslim League unitedly protested against it.
Question 4. Compare the image of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in chapter 1.
Answer : Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascethic figure. She is looking calm, composed, divine and spiritual. She is depicted as dispensing learning, food and clothing. Mata in hand emphasise on her as centic quality. Germania, the female allegory of Germany is portrayed as a heroic figure. She is represented as the strength of the German Empire.
Question 1. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
Answer : Various social groups which joined the movement were
(i) Middle class people in the towns
(ii) Plantation workers
(iii) Peasants in rural areas
(iv) Tribal people
(v) Business class people
Middle Class People in the Towns
In towns, middle class people who consisted of students, teachers and lawyers responded to the clarion call of non-cooperation and boycott. They saw the movement as a passport to freedom from the foreign yoke.
Peasants and Tribals
In various places peasants and tribal also participated in the movement. The movement was launched against the talukdars and landlords. For them Swaraj meant they would not be required to pay land dues i.e. , land revenue, and the land they were cultivating would be distributed among them.
They participated in the movement with the hope that they would be free to move out of the confined space in which they had been enclosed . They hoped that Gandhi Raj had come and they would get land when the y went back home.
Question 2. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism?
Answer : Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism because
(i) All classes could identify with salt as it was a cheap and essential food item.
(ii) Tax on salt and the monopoly over its manufacturing was a sign of the oppression of British Rule.
(iii) It would affect the British Economy.
Gandhiji reached Dandi on 12th March, 1930 and violated salt law by manufacturing salt from sea water. Breaking the salt law was an apparent defiance of British authority and was a direct challenge to British Rule in India. It had a far reaching repercussion on the whole structure of colonialism.
Question 3. Imagine you are a women participating in Civil Disobe- dience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life?
Answer : I was very happy to participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement because I understood that I have to serve the nation in whatever capacity I could. I had heard Gandhiji speaking and asking us to participate in this movement. Inspired by him, I also offered Satyagraha, picketed liquor shops and shops selling foreign cloth and also courted arrest. I felt empowered by these activities and felt that women also can help the men actively in the ultimate goal of achieving independence from the British.
This experience has made me realise that women also have an important role to play in realising our freedom.
Question 4. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Answer : Political leader differed sharply over the question of separate electorates because
- The Nationalist Congress Leaders saw in the Movement the seeds of ‘Divide and Rule’, which weaken the National Movement. This policy of the British would benefit them to maintain their rule over India as long as they wished.
- The Muslim leaders pretended that their interest could only be protected in a Muslim State, and in a Hindu majority state they would be at the mercy of the Hindus.
- BR Ambedkar, the leader of the depressed classes, was in favour of separate electorates, because he feared that in a combined electorate, the lower castes would be under the dominance of the upper castes. Gandhiji brought him round to his views by a tactful move by signing a ‘Poona Pact’ with him which provided fixed and reserved seats for the depressed classes.