On Page 50
Question 1. Find out where these minerals (silica, limestone, aluminium oxide, fluorite, mica, etc) are found?
(a) Silica commonly available in sandy soil.
(b) Limestone commonly available all over India.
(c) Aluminum Oxide (Alumina/Bauxite) available in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Odisha.
(d) Fluorite available in Nasik and Jalgaon areas of Maharashtra.
(e) Rutile, Ilmenite, Anatase available in Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
(f) Mica available in Koderma, Gaya and Hazaribagh areas of Jharkhand and in Rajasthan.
(g) Plastics from Petroleum petroleum is available in Asom, offshore Maharashtra and in Rajasthan
Question 2. Find out how many minerals are used to make a light bulb?
Answer : Minerals used to make parts of a light bulb which require a mineral are
|Part of Bulb||Material Used||Mineral from Which Obtained|
|Filament||Tungsten||Scheelite, Wolframite, ferberite or hubnerite (Metallic oxides of Tungsten)|
|bulb||Glass||Silica (Silicon dioxide)|
|Connecting wires||Copper||Chalcolite (Cuprous Sulphide)|
|Metallic part of body||Aluminium||Bauxite (Aluminium oxide)|
Question 3. Collect ‘nutritional facts’ printed on food labels.
Answer : A sample of nutritional facts printed on a packet of glucose biscuits is given below
|Carbohyd rate||77.5 gm|
|Dietary fibre||0.6 gm|
On Page 52
Question 1. What is the difference between an open pit mine, a quarry and an undergound mine with shafts?
Answer : Differences between an open pit mine, a quarry and underground mine with shafts
|Open Pit Mine||Quarry||Underground Mine with Shafts|
|Minerals are removed from a pot dug in the ground||Minerals are removed from a shallow pit dug in the ground||Minerals are removed through deep shafts dug in the ground|
|Used where commercially useful minerals are found near the surface||Generally, used for extracting building materials like dimension stone||Used where the mineral occurs as veins in hard rock deep below the surface of the Earth|
|Extracted using Earth moving machinery||Extracted using Earth moving machinery||Extracted using elevators that can carry minerals, extraction equipment as well as persons into the area where the mineral is available|
On Page 53
Question 1. Suprimpose the maps showing distribution of iron ore, manganese, coal and iron and steel industry. Do you see any correlation? Why?
Answer : The iron and steel industries are located in the same regions of India where the iron ore, coal and manganese mines are located. As coal and manganese are required as inputs to the iron and steel industry, their availability in the same region saves on transportation costs as well as on ease of availability. So it is profitable to locate these industries in the regions where these minerals are available.
On Page 55
Question 1. Locate the mines of Bauxite on the physical map of India.
Answer : The locations of Bauxite mines in India are shown in the map given on the next page.
On Page 56
Question 1. Study the maps to explain why Chottanagpur is a storehouse of minerals.
Answer : If we study the maps given in the textbook, we can understand why the Chhotanagpur plateau is considered as a storehouse of minerals. The reasons are
(a) Iron ore is found in abundance and about 40% of iron ore in India is found in area (refer fig. 5.2 in textbook)
(b ) Over 50% of manganese in India is found in this region (refer fig. 5.4).
(c) Almost 60% of copper in India is found here (refer fig. 5.6 )
(d) Almost 60% of bauxite in India is found here (refer fig. 5. 7)
(e) The maps on pages 54 and 59 in the textbook indicate the location of coal and other minerals like mice available in this region.
On Page 58
Question 1. Make a list of items where substitutes are being used instead of minerals. Where are these substitutes obtained from?
Answer : Substitutes are being used instead of mineral products as given below
|Substitute||Mineral Product||Item in Which Used|
|Chemicals of plastics family||Steel (from iron ore)||Furniture, vehicle parts|
|Chemicals of plastics family||Aluminium||Vehicle parts|
|Artificial jewellery made from plastics||Gold and silver||Jewellery|
The majority of these substitutes are obtained from petroleum after it is suitably process in a refinery.
On Page 60
Question 1. Name some river valley projects and write the names of the dams built on these rivers.
Answer : Some river valley projects and names of dams on them are given below (there are many others)
|Name of River Valley Project||Name of Dams|
|Bhakra Nangal Project on river Sutlej||Bhakra and Nangal (2 dams)|
|Chambal Valley Project||Gandhi Sagar, Rana Pratap Sagar and Jawahar Sagar (3 dams )|
|Mahanadi River Project||Hirakud|
|Rihand Project on river Son||Rihand|
|Krishna River Project||Nagarjuna Sagar|
|Farakka Project on Ganga river||Farakka|
|Tungabhadra River Project||Tungabhadra|
On Page 62
Answer : One of these is Panki in Uttar Pradesh. The fuel used there is coal.
Question 2. Locate the 6 nuclear power stations and find out the state in which they are located?
Answer : The six nuclear power stations and the states in which they are located are as follows
|Nuclear Power Station||State|
Question 1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following minerals is formed by decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered material?
(a) Coal (b) Bauxite (c) Gold (d) Zinc
(ii) Koderma, in Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?
(a) Bauxite (b) Mica (c) Iron ore (d) Copper
(iii) Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the stratas of which of the following rocks?
(a) Sedimentary rocks (b) Metamorphic rocks (c) Igneous rocks (d) None of these
(iv) Which one of the following minerals is contained in Monazite sand?
(a) Oil (b) Uranium (c) Thorium (d) Coal
(i) (b) Coal gold and zinc are not formed by the decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered material.
(ii) (b) Koderma is the leading producer of mica not of bauxite, copper and iron ore.
(iii) (a) Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the stratas of sedimentary rocks.
(iv) (c) Monazite sand does not contain oil, uranium and coal.
Question 2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Distinguish between the following in not more than 30 words.
(a) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals
(b) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy
(ii) What is a mineral?
(iii) How are minerals forme in igneous and metamorphic rocks?
(iv) Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?
Answer : (i)
(a) Ferrous Minerals Ferrous minerals contain iron content and are helpful in the development of metallurgical industries. Iron ore, chromite, cobalt, etc are the examples of ferrous minerals.
Non-ferrous Minerals These minerals do not contain iron content and play an important role in a number of industries like, engineering and electrical industries. Copper, zinc, lead and aluminium are the examples of non-ferrous minerals.
(b) Conventional Sources of Energy Conventional sources of energy have been used since a long time. They are non-renewable and exhaustible sources of energy. Wood, fuel, coal, petroleum etc are the examples of conventional sources of energy.
Non-conventional Sources of Energy The sources of energy which are of recent origin and have not been commonly used are calle d non-conventional sources of energy. These are renewable so urces of energy. Wind, tidal energy solar energy etc are some of the ex amples of non-conventional sources of energy.
(ii) A mineral is naturally occuring substance which has definite chemical composition comprising one or more elements. Minerals are identified by their physical and chemical properties.
(iii) Minerals in igneous and metamorphic rocks found in the cracks, crevices and fault. Smaller such occurance is called veins and larger are called lodes.
(iv) We need to conserve mineral resource because
(a) They are unevenly distributed over the surface of the Earth.
(b) They are non-renewable sources of energy.
(c) They are need for economic growth and industrialisation .
(d) They are limited in supply.
Question 3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Describe the distribution of coal in India.
(ii) Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India?
(i) In India, coal deposits found are mainly of two geological ages
(a) Gondwana Coal Deposits These are about 200 million years old. The major coal deposit in India are Gondawana coal which are high quality metallurgical coal and are located in Damodar Valley (Paschim Banga, Jharkhand). Jharia, Ranigunj, and Bakoro are important coalfields. Besides, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys also contain such coal deposits.
(b) Tertiary Coal Deposits These are around 55 million years old. Tertiary coal deposits are found in the North-Eastern states of Meghalaya, Asom, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. This coal is of lower quality than the Gondwana coal.
(ii) Solar energy is an inexhaustible source of energy produced from sunlight. There is enough scope for the development of solar energy. It has bright future in India because
(a) Many parts (regions) of the country received sunlight on 300 days annually and so it becomes possible to generate 20 MW solar energy per square kilometer in such areas.
(b) It is easy to established solar plants in urban and rural areas.
(c) By setting up solar plants in rural areas the dependence of people on firewood can be reduced.
(d) It is also becoming popular as it is used for cooking, heating water, lighting etc.
(e) It is a renewable source of energy, while other conventional sources used for generating electricity are exhaustible and non-renewable.
Fill the name of the correct mineral in the crossward below
|A ferrous mineral (9)||Found in placer deposit (4)|
|Raw material for cement industry (9)||Iron ore mined in Bailadila (8)|
|Finest iron ore with magnetic properties (9)||Indispensable for electrical industry (4)|
|Highest quality hard coal (10)||Geological age of coal found in North East India (8)|
|Aluminium is obtained from this ore (7)||Formed in veins and lodes (3)|
|Khetri mines are fomous for this mineral (6)|
|Formed due to evaporation (6)|