On Page 67
Question 1. Classify the following into two groups on the basis of bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods.
(i) Oil (ii) Knitting needles
(iii) Brassware (iv) Fuse wires
(v) Watches (vi) Sewing machines
(vii) Shipbuilding (viii) Paint brushes
Answer : The classification will be under Light industries and Heavy industries as follows
|Light Industries||Heavy Industries|
On Page 68
Question 1. Why did Mahatma Gandhi lay emphasis on spinning yarn and weaving Khadi?
Answer : He did this for the following reasons
(a) To boycott foreign made cloth as a means of protest.
(b) To develop a sense of nationalism among the people.
(c) To give employment to a large number of people who were unemployed.
(d) To promote cloth making as a cottage industry.
Question 2. Why is it important for our country to keep the mill sector loomage lower than powerloom and handloom?
Answer : The main reason is that it will increase the employment is the rural areas, where powerloom and handloom work is located. This will lead to more prosperity in rural areas, thus reducing the migration of villagers to towns and cities.
On Page 70
Question 1. Why is it important for us to improve our weaving sector instead of exporting yarn in large quantities?
Answer : We need to make improvements in the weaving sector for the following reasons
(a) Weaving machinery is old and needs to be upgraded to give more output.
(b) Power supply to the powerlooms is erratic and power needs to be available on continuous basis.
(c) Weavers can directly supply cloth to garment manufacturers instead of garment makers importing the fabric .
(d) This will also increase employment and incomes of the weavers.
On Page 71
Question 1. Make a list of all such goods made of steel that you can think of.
Answer : Some goods made of steel under various categories are given below
|Engineering||Auto parts, parts of machinery|
|Construction material||Iron bars for reinforcement of concrete structures|
|Defence equipment||Guns and bullets|
|Medical equipment||Surgical tools|
|Telephonic equipment||Casings of telephone exchanges|
|Scientific equipment||Casings of equipment used in laboratories|
On Page 73
Question 1 . Represent the given data with a bar diagram.
Table 5.2 : Total Finished Steel Production in India
|Year||Production (In million tonnes per annum)|
Why is the per capita consumption of steel so low in India?
Answer : The give data is represented in the bar diagram given below
Production(in million tonnes per annum)
The main reason is high cost of steel. India has a large number of people living below the poverty line, who cannot afford individual vehicles for transport (the vehicles containa large amount of steel). The other consumption of steel is in utensils, where aluminium is an alternative material which is much cheaper.
On Page 74
Question 1. Have you read about the Kalinganagar controversy?
Answer : Yes; it is another instance of the resistance of the tribal to losing their lands to industrialisation. The Tata Group has contracted with the Government of Odisha to set up a giant steel plant in Kalinganagar area. As the tribals living in this area would have lost their land and their livelihoods would be threatened, they revolted. On 2nd January, 2006 in a police firing incident, 13 tribals were killed. Subsequently, when their bodies were being handed over to their relatives, it was found that palms of five tribals had been chopped off (for identifying them by fingerprinting) by the doctors conducting the postmortems on them.
The above controversy has affected the setting up of this steel plant and also the industrialisation in Odisha overall.
Question 2. A factory produces aluminium saucepans with plastic handles. It obtains aluminium from a smelter and a plastic component from another factory. All the manufactured saucepans are sent to a warehouse
(i) (a) Which raw material is likely to be most expensive to transport and why?
(b) Which raw material is likely to be the cheapest to transport and why?
(ii) Do you think the cost of transporting the finished products after packaging is likely to be cheaper or more expensive than the cost of transporting aluminium and plastic? Why?
(i) (a) Aluminium, because it is heavier than plastic and also the saucepan body is bulkier than the handle.
(b) Plastic is cheaper for the same reasons given in (a).
(ii) Cost of transporting finished products after packaging will be cheaper because they are likely to be enclosed in rectangular packing boxes, which can be easily transported in larger quantities by proper stacking, either by goods train or by truck.
On Page 75
Question 1. Chemical industries are widely spread over the country. Why do you think it is so?
Answer : Since the chemical industry has its own largest consumer, many organic chemical industries are located near the oil refineries and big petrochemical complexes. In the inorganic chemical industry, the raw materials used are lightweight and so they are cheep and easy to transport. Both the above factors contribute to the wide dispersal of chemical industry all over India.
Question 2. Where would it be economically viable to set up the cement manufacturing units?
Answer : Since cement manufacturing requires bulky and heavy raw materials like coal, limestone, silica, etc such industries are likely to be located near to the areas where such minerals are found, to reduce the cost of transportation of these materials. Regular availability of electrical power and availability of a railway line are also factors which are taken into consideration while deciding the location of a cement manufacturing plant.
Question 3. Find out where the plants are located in other states of India. Find their names.
Answer : The names of the major companies in cement industry and locations of their major cement plants in India are given below
Question 1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium (b) Cement (c) Sugar (d) Jute
(ii) Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?
(a) HAIL (b) SAIL (c) TATA Steel (d) MNCC
(iii) Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium (b) Cement (c) Jute (d) Steel
(iv) Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computer, etc?
(a) Steel (c) Electronic (b) Aluminium (d) Information technology
(i) (b) Aluminium, sugar and jute are incorrect option, lime stone is used as a raw material in the cement industry.
(ii) (b) SAIL, market steel for public sector plants.
(iii) (a) Bauxite used as a raw material in aluminium industries.
(iv) (b) Electronic manufactures telephones, computer etc
Question 2. Answer the following briefly in not more than 30 words.
(i) What is manufacturing?
(ii) Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.
(iii) Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.
(iv) What are basic industries? Give an example.
(v) Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement.
(i) The process of converting raw material into useful goods with the help of technology and machines is known as manufacturing..
(ii) Three physical factors for the location of the industry are the easy or low cost availability of the following
(a) Raw material
(b) Suitably qualified experienced workmen
(d) Market for finished goods
(iii) (a) Availability of labours
(b) Availability of markets
(c) Empty areas in terms of population
(iv) Basic industries are those industries which supply raw materials for manufacture of other goods. These are also called key industries.
Example Iron and steel industry.
(v) Limestone, Silica, Alumina and Gypsum are used as raw materials in the manufacture of cement.
Question 3. Write the answers of the following questions in 120 words.
(i) How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?
(ii) How do industries pollute the environment?
(iii) Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry.
Answer : (i)
(a) Integrated Steel Plants These are large in size and handle everything under one roof. From sorting of raw material to manufacturing of steel, everything is done in a chain in integrated steel plants. At present, there are ten major integrated steel plants in India.
(b) Mini Steel Plants These are smaller in size as compare to integrated steel plants. These usually have an electric arc furnace and use steel scrap and sponge iron as raw material. At present, there are more than 200 mini steel plants in India.
(c) Problem Faced by Industry
Low efficiency of the work force.
Shortage of the availability of cooking coal.
Lack of energy supply.
(d) Recent Developments In recent years, the Policy of Liberalisation and FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) have provided boost to iron and steel industry. Rapid infrastructure development has led to the growth of demand of iron and steel. India is now capable of producing steel more competitively.
(ii) Industries pollute the environment by polluting air water and land. They also cause environmental pollution by noise pollution .
(a) Air Pollution Industries cause air pollution by the emission of gases from industrial complexes and power generation units . Leakage of poisonous gases and chemicals from chemical industries also leads to air pollution.
(b) Water Pollution Water pollution is caused when industrial effluents both organic and inorganic are discharged into rivers or other water bodies. Some other common pollutants of the water pollution are fertilizers, pesticides, dyes, soaps, etc.
(c) Noise Pollution Undesirable noise pollution from industries like construction, running of generators to generate power, electrical drills etc is responsible for disturbing our environment.
(d) Thermal Pollution Thermal plants are responsible for causing thermal pollution. It is caused due to the discharge of hot water, chemicals and other substance into lakes, ponds, rivers or any other water bodies. It is responsible for destroying aquatic life. Water waste from nuclear thermal plants, weapon manufacturing industries, dumping of domoestic wastes in water bodies also leads to thermal pollution.
(e) Land Pollution Land pollution is caused by dumping of non-biodegradable solid waste from industries inlandfull sites.
(iii) We can minimises environmental degradation by industry by the following steps
(a) Minimise the use of water for processing by reusing/recycling it in successive stages.
(b) Harvesting rainwater to meet water requirements.
(c) Treating effluents before releasing them in water bodies. This can be done by mechanical means, biological processes chemical and physical processes.
(d) Reduce particulate matter in the air by fitting factory smokestacks with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
(e) Reduce smoke by using gas or oil instead of coal as fuel in furnaces.
(f) Fit noise producing machinery and generators with silencers.
Question 1. Give one word for each of the following with regard to industry. The number of letter in each word are hinted in brackets.
(i) Used to drive machinery (5) P…………………
(ii) People who work in factory (6) W…………………
(iii) Where the product is sold (6) M …………………
(iv) A person who sells goods (8) R…………………
(v) Thing produced (7) P…………………
(vi) To make or produce (11) M…………………
(vii) Land, water and air degraded (9) P …………………
(i) Power (ii) Worker
(iii) Market (iv) Retailer
(v) Product (vi) Manufacture
Question 2. Solve the puzzle by following your search horizontally and vertically to find the hidden answer
- Textiles, sugar, vegetable oil and plantation industries deriving raw meterials from agriculture are called…
- The basic raw material for sugar industry.
- This fibre is also known as the ‘Golden Fibre’.
- Iron-ore, coking coal, and limestone are the chief raw materials of this industry.
- A public sector steel plant located in Chhattisgarh.
- Railway diesel engines are manufactured in Uttar Pradesh at this place.