Understanding the text
Question 1. Give reasons for the following
(i) King Tut’s body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny.
Answer King Tut’s body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny because right from the time of the discovery of his tomb in 1922, the modern world has been curious to find out what happened to him, with murder being the most extreme possibility.
(ii) Howard Carter’s investigation was resented.
Answer Howard Carter’s investigation was resented because Carter’s men removed the mummy’s head and severed nearly every major joint of the body to raise Tut’s body from the coffin.
(iii) Carter had to chisel away the solidified resins to raise the King’s remains.
Answer Carter had to chisel away the solidified resins to raise the King’s remains because the ritual resins had hardened, cementing Tut to the bottom of his solid gold coffin, which no amount of legitimate force could move.
(iv) Tut’s body was buried alongwith gilded treasures.
Answer Tut’s body was buried alongwith gilded treasures because in that time, the royals were fabulously wealthy and they thought and hoped that they could take their riches with them in their journey to the great beyond.
(v) The boy changed his name from Tutan khaten to Tutan khamun.
Answer The boy changed his name from Tutan khaten to Tutan khamun because he wanted the restoration of the old ways. His ancestor had shocked the country by attacking ‘Amun’, a major God, and it was a shocking time. Tutan khamun means ‘living image of Amun’.
Question 2. (i) List the deeds that led Ray Johnson to describe Akhenaten as ‘whacky’.
Answer Ray Johnson described Akhenaten as ‘whacky’ for the his following deeds
- Akhenaten first changed his name and moved the religious capital from the old city of Thebes to the new city of Akhenaten.
- He further shocked the country by attacking ‘Amun’ a major God, by smashing his images and closing his temples.
(ii) What were the results of the CT Scan?
Answer The CT Scan showed King Tut’s neck vertebrae, a hand and several views of the rib-cage and a transection of the skull. All of it showed that nothing had gone seriously wrong.
(iii) List the advances in technology that have improved forensic analysis.
Answer The advances in technology that have improved forensic analysis are as follows
- Today, diagonistic imaging can be done by computed tomography or CT.
- In CT, hundreds of X-rays in cross-section are put together like slices of bread to create a three dimensional virtual body.
- The X-ray images in cross section can scan even the intricate structure by reducing it to slices in millimetres.
(iv) Explain the statement, ‘‘King Tut is one of the first mummy to be scanned in death as in life.’’
Answer King Tut was the last heir of a powerful family that had ruled Egypt for centuries. He met a very early death just when he was 18 years old. Since the discovery of his tomb in 1922, the world has speculated a lot about him. Tut’s mummy had to undergo a CT Scan that offered new clues about his life and death. His mummy was the first to go for a CT scan, hence, in death as in life, he moved regally ahead of his countrymen.
Talking about the text
Discuss the following
Question 1. Scientific invention is necessary to unearth buried mysteries.
Answer A man has to learn a lot of things from his past to face the present for a bright future. One can never learn only from imagination. We need to have solid, concerete proof in front of us to enhance our knowledge. E.g., if King Tut’s mummy was not subjected to scientific scrutiny, we would never have known more about the great and the last heir of a powerful family that had ruled Egypt for centuries.
There is certainly a need to use scientific invention to find what happened to someone, centuries ago. If we want to know what happened long time back, we can read about it in History. The scientific, scrutiny of King Tut’s mummy helped the modern world to discover a lot of things about the king that would, otherwise, have remained unknown. King Tut was the last heir of a powerful family who died young. Whether he has murdered or died a natural death is a matter of interest to archaeologists.
Question 2. Advanced technology gives us conclusive evidence of past events.
Answer : In Favour Science is known for its precision. If any thing is subjected To analysis to come to a definite conclusion, advanced technology indeed helps. E.g., CT Scan of King Tut’s mummy has offered new clues about his life and death, and provides precise data for accurate forensic reconstruction of the young king. It helped to probe the lingering medical mysteries of the young ruler, who died more than 3,300 years ago.
Against No doubt, advanced technology helps but what is beyond comprehension that should be used to find conclusive evidence of the past when the present itself is laden with so many mysteries. Even the advanced technology can not always be correct.
Question 3. Traditions, rituals and funerary practice must be respected.
Answer : In Favour Any society can progress only if it does not let go its roots. We may ridicule certain traditions, scoff at rituals and mock at funerary practice. But, all these old practices have certain mythological values attached to them. There is a belief, not only in India but outside also, that the death is only an end to the physical being. The soul has to travel further. King Tut was buried with everyday things he may want in the afterlife such as board games, bronze razor, cases of food and wine.
Against Human beings are known for their discretionary power. Traditions, rituals and funerary practices should be given due respect but we should understand one thing very clearly. The practice which carries no meaning should be discarded. The dead body should be cremated with honour but burying it with everyday things has no relevance. Why would a dead person need food, water and razors? We should learn to respect and not to follow blind foldedly.
Question 4. Knowledge about the past is useful to complete our knowledge of the world we live in.
Answer : In Favour Our past is our best teacher. From our past experiences, We learn not to commit the same mistakes, which resulted in disaster. The knowledge of our past helps us to understand about the ideas, which can be understood and followed to pave our way to success. The revelation of King Tut’s mummy helped to understand the ancient culture of Egypt, which brought us a clear understanding of the gradual changes in the culture of that country.
Against Knowledge of the past, no doubt, is useful to understand and make our present more productive. But the world is changing at a rapid speed. For us, even what had happened an hour earlier, may not have significance for tomorrow. Everyday, new inventions are taking place, new discoveries are made. So, knowledge about the past may be useful but not always essential.
Working with words
Question 5. Given below are some interesting combination of words. Explain why they have been used together?
(a) ghostly dust devils (b) desert sky
(c) stunning artefacts (d) funerary treasures
(e) scientific detachment (f) dark-bellied clouds
(g) casket grey (h) eternal brilliance
(i)ritual resins (j) virtual body
ghostly dust devils As King Tut’s body was taken from his resting place a strong wind blew that threw away a lot of dust. The dead is always associated with ghost. The noisy dusty wind was giving the impression of devils getting angry by being disturbed.
- desert sky The sky, which was cloudless, an absolutely clear sky.
- stunning artefacts Very precious and valuable artefacts that by its looks can leave people speechless.
- funerary treasures The valuable and precious things which were buried along with King Tut’s body.
- scientific detachment To find the truth, Carter had to chisel away the solidified matter beneath the limbs to raise the remains of King Tut. The emotions did not play any role.
- dark bellied clouds The huge dark clouds probably containing a lot of rains.
- casket grey Grey colour is associated with grief. Casket carries the dead bodies. Death brings grief.
- eternal brilliance The shine that is everlasting. Even the passage of time could not affect their brilliance.
- ritual resins Resins are dry fruits. But in ancient Egypt, they were used to cover the chest of the dead body before burial, which was a part of the rituals.
- virtual body A body, that may not really exist but impresses its presence in the mind.