NCERT Solutions for class 10th Social Science Chapter 11 Political Science – Federalism


Question 1. Locate the following states on a blank outline political map of India–Manipur, Sikkim, Chhattisgarh and Goa.


Question 2.  Identify and shade three federal countries (other than India) on a blank outline political map of the world.

  1. Brazil
  2. South Africa
  3. Russia

Answer :

Question 3. Point out one feature in the practice of federalism in India that is similar to and one feature that is different from that of Belgium.

Answer: One Similar Feature of Federalism between India and Belgium India and Belgium are both holding together federations where the Central Government tends to be more powerful vis-a-vis the states or regions.

One Different Feature of Federalism between India and Belgium In Belgium, there are three kinds of government–government at the centre, government at the state level and the community government. The community government has the powers regarding cultural, educational and language related issues. But in India, the third kind of government is not a community government. It is the local government (municipalities or Panchayats) in India.

Question 4. What is the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one? Explain with an example.

Answer: In a unitary form of government, the National Government has all the powers. Any constitutional powers given to the states or regions of the country are dependent on the National Government, which can withdraw them at any time. Sri Lanka is one such example. In the federal form of government like in India, the power is divided between the National Government and the various State Governments.

Question 5. State any two differences between the Local Government before and after the Constitutional Amendment, i n 1992.

Answer :

Question 6.  Fill in the blanks –

States is a ….(1)…..type of federation, all the constituent states have equal powers and states are ….(2)…. vis-a-vis the Federal Government. But India is a ….(3)…. type of federation and some states have more powers than others. In India, the ….(4)…. government has more powers.

Answer : (1) coming together, (2) stronger, (3) holding together , (4) Central.

Question 7. Here are three reactions to the language policy followed in India. 

Given an argument and an example to support any of these positions-

Sangeeta The policy of accommodation has strengthened national unity. 

Arman Language-based states have divided us by making everyone conscious of their language.

Harish This policy has only helped to consolidate the dominance of English over all other languages.

Answer: The position held by Sangeeta is the right one. In reality, the policy of accommodation has strengthened national unity. An example is the case of the English language.

According to the Constitution, the use of English for official purposes was to stop in 1965. But many non-Hindi-speaking states demanded that the use. of English should continue. The Central Government agreed to continue the use of English along with Hindi for official purposes. The government helped our country to avoid the conflict that is being faced by Sri Lanka.

Question 8.  The distinguishing feature of a Federal Government is –

  1. national government gives some powers to the provincial governments.
  2. power is distributed among the legislature, executive and judiciary.
  3. elected officials exercise supreme power in the government.
  4. governmental power is divided between different levels of government.

Answer: 4.

Question 9. A few subjects in various lists of the Indian Constitution are given here. Group them under the Union, State and Concurrent Lists as provided in the given below.

1. Defence2. Police
3. Agriculture4. Education
5. Banking6. Forests
7. Communications8. Trade
9. Marriages

Answer: Union List 

(1) Defence  (5) Banking (7) Communications.

State List

(2) Police (3) Agriculture (8) Trade

Concurrent List

(4) Education (6) Forests (9) Marriages

Question 10. Examine the following pairs that give the level of Government in India and the powers of the government at that level to make laws on the subjects mentioned against each. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?

(a) State Government — State List

(b) Central Government — Union List

(c) Central and State Government — Concurrent List

(d) Local Governments — Residuary Powers

Answer : (d)

Question 11. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists.

List – IList- II
1. Union of India
2. State
3. Municipal Corporation
4. Gram Panchayat
A. Prime Minister
B. Sarpanch
C. Governor
D. Major


Answer: (c)

Question 12. Consider the following statements

  1. In a federation, the power of the Federal and Provincial Governments are clearly demarcated.
  2.  India is a federation because the powers of the Union and State Governments are specified in the Constitution and they have exclusive jurisdiction on their respective subjects. 
  3. Sri Lanka is a federation because the country is divided into provinces. 
  4.  India is no longer a federation because some powers of the states have been devolved to the local government bodies.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) A, B, and C (b) A, C, and D 

(c) A and B (d) B and C

Answer: (c).