On Page 34
Question 1. Can you name some industries based on agricultural raw material?
Answer: The industries include the following –
- Cotton textiles-raw material is cotton bolls from the cotton plant.
- Jute sacks-raw material is jute fibre from the jute plant .
- Any food/fruit processing industry.
- Tea/coffee processing-raw materials are tea leaves/coffee beans.
Question 2. Can you name some such types (primitive subsistence farming) of farming?
Answer: Such type of farming is known as –
- Jhumming in North-East India.
- Dipa in Bastar district, Chhattisgarh.
- Milpa in Mexico.
And many names. (given in the textbook).
On Page 35
Question 1. Can you name the type of farming Rinjha’s family (in a small village at the outskirts of Diphu in Asom) is engaged in ?
Answer: Primitive subsistence farming.
Question 2. Can you enlist some crops which are grown in such farming (Jhumming)?
Answer: Cereals like bajra and rice as well as vegetables/food crops to sustain their family.
Question 3. Can you name some of the states of India where such farming (Jhumming) is practised?
Answer: Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Asom and other North-Eastern states, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and others.
Question 4. Can you give some more examples of crops which may be commercial in one region and may provide subsistence in another region?
Answer: An example is wheat which is a commercial crops in Punjab, Haryana and Western region of Uttar Pradesh, but is a subsistence crop in Madhya Pradesh and some parts of Bihar.
On Page 42
Question 1. List the items which are made of rubber and are used by us.
On Page 44
Question 1. Find out why an Indian farmer does not want his son to become a farmer.
Answer : An Indian farmer will not want his son to become a farmer because –
- The share of agriculture in India’s GDP has been declining since 1950 and so farming has a bleak future in terms of income from it in future.
- Land reform laws have been enacted more than 40 years ago, but their implementation is inadequate, resulting in no improvement in the condition of small farmers.
- Exploitation by middlemen continues, resulting in farmers not getting a remunerative price for their produce.
- Irrigation infrastructure is still inadequate in many parts of the country, which makes the farmers dependent on the vagaries of the weather. A bad monsoon can spell doom for the crop.
Question 2. Why are farmers committing suicides in several states of the country?
Answer: Usually, farmers take loans from local moneylenders at very high rates of interest for farming inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. When a crop fails, they are not able to repay the loan, causing many hardships like starvation, losing part of their land to the moneylender, mental agony due to crop failure, etc. All this leads them to commit suicide.
Question 3. When farmers have been facing so many problems, and land under agriculture is decreasing, can we think of alternative employment opportunities in the agriculture sector?
Answer: Yes, they can take up other employment like the following, which is less dependent on the land available.
|(a) Dairy Farming.||(b) Poultry rearing/hatcheries.|
|(c) Floriculture||(d) Horticulture/Fruit Growing|
|(e) Beekeeping||(f) Fisheries|
On Page 45
Question 1. Do you know why foodgrains production has remained stagnant or fallen for six consecutive years?
Answer: The major reasons for this stagnation in foodgrains production are –
- Decrease in soil fertility due to excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides, intensive farming, etc resulting in lower yields in successive years.
- Decrease of water storage in aquifers due to excessive pumping to grow water-intensive crops earlier. This has resulted in the drying up of wells and tubewells.
- Reduction in net sown area of foodgrains due to shift of cultivation to fruits, vegetables, oilseeds, pulses and other commercial /cash crops.
- Reduction in agricultural land due to part of it being used for non-agricultural purposes like housing, industry, etc.
Question 1. Multiple choice questions.
- (b) Plantation agriculture describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area.
- (ii) (b) Gram is a Rabi crop.
- (a) The group of pulses comprises leguminous crops.
- (b) Minimum support price is announced by the government in support of a crop.
Question 2. Answer the following questions in 30 words.
- Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.
- Name one staple crop of India, and the regions where it is produced?
- Enlist the various institutional reforms programmes introduced by the government in the interest of the farmers.
- The land under cultivation has reduced day-by-day. Can you imagine its consequences?
- Tea is an important beverage crop.
Climate Warm and moist frost-free climate throughout the year.
Rainfall Frequent showers evenly distributed.
Soil Deep and fertile well-drained soil rich in humus.
2. Rice is the staple crop of India.
- It is grown in Paschim Banga, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Asom and Punjab.
3. The following steps have been taken by the government to modernise Indian agriculture.
(a) The government has established the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities and animal breeding centres to carry out research and development activities in agriculture.
(b) The government is also investing in rural infrastructure to link the rural market with the international market.
(c) The kisan credit card, personal and crop insurance schemes, etc have been launched.
(d) A comprehensive land development programme has also been launched.
4. (a) This will put more pressure on industry and other sectors because people are migrating from the agricultural sector to the other sectors.
(b) This will affect food security.
(c) Agro-based industry will suffer because of the shortage of raw materials.
Question 3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
- Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.
- Describe the impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture.
- Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice.
1. Government has made concerted efforts to ensure the increase in agricultural production since 1951. These include
(a) Abolition of zamindari system.
(b) Announcement of minimum support price every year to prevent any exploitation of farmers.
(c) Consolidation of small landholdings into a large one where mechanisation is possible.
(d) Ceiling on landholdings where maximum limit towards ownership was fixed by the government.
(e) Introduction of insurance to provide security against failure of crops.
(f) Opening up of rural banks and co-operative societies to provide credit to the farmers at a low interest.
(g) Introduction of high yielding varieties, use of machines, fertilisers etc.
(h) Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced through mass media.
2. In the nineteenth century, Indian spices were exported to different countries of the world. Even today these are being exported in larger quantities.
Farmers have been exposed to new challenges after 1990. Agricultural products are not able to compete with developed countries because of the highly subsidised agriculture in these countries.
Indian farmers should diversify their cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops.
To make agriculture successful, the condition of small and marginal farmers. Genetic engineering and organic farming should be employed to increase without degrading the land.
India’s diverse climate can be harnessed to grow a wide range of high value crops.
3. Geographical conditions required for the growth of rice are
(a) Temperature It is a Kharif crop which requires high temperature and high humidity. The mean monthly temperature of about 25 ° C with minor variation during the sowing, growing and harvest ing season is suitable for the growth of the plant.
(b) Rainfall Rice needs abundant rainfall, i.e. , more than 100 cm. It can grow in areas with less rainfall but with assured irrigation. Rice is grown in Punjab and Haryana with the help of irrigation.
(c) Soil Rice can grow in a variety of soils including silts, loams and gravels, but it is grown best in alluvial soil with a sub-soil of impervious clay.
Question 1. On an outline map of India show wheat producing areas.
Answer India wheat production-top in five states –
|State||Five Years (1994-1998) Average Production (in %)|
The areas of wheat cultivation are shown in the map given belo w with the major area boxed.
Question 1. Solve the puzzle by following your search horizontally and vertically to find the hidden answers.
- The two staple food crops of India.
- This is the summer cropping season of India.
- Pulses like arhar, moong, gram, urad contain….
- It is a coarse grain.
- The two important beverages in India are….
- One of the four major fibers grown on black soils.